Annual report 2004
Dr. Elisabeth Niggemann, Director General
- The year 2004 in review
- New extension in Leipzig
- Draft of a new law
- The digital library
- Agreement on the duplication of copy protected works
- Budget / Library organisation
- Mission statement
- Stadardisation activities
- IFLA-CDNL Alliance for Bibliographic Standards (ICABS)
- Virtual International Authority File (VIAF)
- Co-ordination Agency DissOnline
- New concept for the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie
- Restructuring of the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie
- Library use
- Collections and outstanding new acquisitions
- Long-term preservation
- Cross-Concordance Standard-Thesaurus Economic (STW/SWD)
- DDC Deutsch
- Jewish periodicals during the NS regime in Germany
- Integration of the periodicals data of Die Deutsche Bibliothek into the Zeitschriftendatenbank (Periodicals Database, ZDB)
- The European Library
- Professional conferences and training
- Cultural programme
The year 2004 in review
During the past year, Die Deutsche Bibliothek pursued a number of activities devoted to making the best possible use of existing potentials and ensuring the library's ability to perform its functions in the future. Several issues have been focal points of activity for some years and will remain at the centre of our attention. The question of how a national library should handle digital publications and how this responsibility should be reflected in its statutory mandate is only one such issue. The library will also be concerned with plans for the 4th extension of the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig for a number of years to come. This review of the past year provides a brief outline of the major topics of concern and focal points of activity at Die Deutsche Bibliothek in 2004.
New extension in Leipzig
The preliminary phase of planning for the 4th extension of the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig was completed to the satisfaction of everyone involved. Construction is scheduled to begin in 2006. However, one important matter remains to be settled before the final plans for realization are drawn up. The question of the rationality and cost-effectiveness of accommodating the German Music Archive (Deutsches Musikarchiv) in the "Siemens Villa" in Berlin has been the subject of ongoing discussion in recent years. Thus a new study was commissioned to explore the possibility of integrating the German Music Archive Berlin into the 4th extension of the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig. The authors of the study came to the conclusion that the integration of the German Music Archive into the total complex of the Deutsche Bücherei represents a viable and economical solution from an architectural standpoint. At the same time, arguments were presented for both options - leaving the German Music Archive in Berlin or moving it to Leipzig. The Administrative Council decided in late January 2005 that integration is the best and most sustainable solution for both the German Music Archive Berlin and Die Deutsche Bibliothek.
Draft of a new law
Fundamental changes in the publishing sector have made it necessary to expand the statutory collection mandate of Die Deutsche Bibliothek to encompass digital publications. The collection, bibliographic indexing and long-term preservation of these publications, as well as the goal of ensuring their availability for use beyond copyright "expiration dates" pose significant challenges to the library. In 2004, the Federal Commissioner for Cultural and Media Affairs proposed a revision of the "Law regarding the Deutsche Bibliothek" in response to the recognized need to include digital publications under the collection mandate. The bill drafted for this purpose also specifies a new name for Die Deutsche Bibliothek which more aptly reflects its responsibilities: the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek (German National Library). The draft is presently under review by the relevant departments of the responsible Federal Ministries.
The digital library
Digital publications are submitted for deposit to Die Deutsche Bibliothek on the basis of agreements providing for voluntary deposit. Digital publications must be included under the collection mandate in order to ensure that the nation's cultural heritage is documented comprehensively and permanently for the benefit of the public. Several different factors are of crucial importance with respect to the library's ability to meet the requirements of an expanded collection mandate: identification and acquisition of publications, bibliographic processing and storage, long-term archiving and the assurance of long-term availability for use. Co-operation in efforts to meet these objectives is both conceivable and desirable. Several models for co-operation have already been discussed and tested in collaboration with the Consortium of Regional Libraries.
Agreement on the duplication of copy protected works
A number of publishers and producers of sound recordings safeguard their publication with anti-copy protection features. It is illegal to override these technical protective mechanisms. However, the Copyright Act provides for so called exemptions according to which the access to works protected by technical measures is allowed for specific purposes, including scientific and cultural uses. The most recent revision of the German Copyright Act expressly provides for agreements between associations to allow for use of media with anti-copy protection for these purposes as well. The Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels and the Bundesverband der Phonographischen Wirtschaft have taken advantage of this option and concluded a corresponding contract with Die Deutsche Bibliothek. On the basis of this agreement, Die Deutsche Bibliothek is entitled to reproduce materials and, if necessary, to circumvent technical protective features in order to archive the materials, make them available to users for scholarly purposes, compile collections for use in schools or other instructional settings or for teaching and research. This right also extends to out-of-print works. In order to prevent misuse, Die Deutsche Bibliothek will ensure that users have a legitimate interest in obtaining such copies (for which fees will be charged), and will also incorporate anti-copy protection features and personalized digital watermarks into all copies released, wherever possible.
Budget / Library organisation
The library continues to operate on a tightly restricted budget. Die Deutsche Bibliothek has instituted a controlling system for the purpose of assessing the resources required to fulfil its responsibilities. In addition to the basic cost and activity accounting module, the controlling software offers a wide range of controlling instruments and serves as a decision-support tool for existing and planned products. System implementation was initiated in February 2004. The required data were entered into the system over the summer, and employees were trained in the autumn. Following a two-month test phase at the end of the year, the controlling system was commissioned in January 2005.
Die Deutsche Bibliothek has also initiated discussions on the prioritization of library functions and potential cost-cutting measures. The "Resource and Activity Consolidation" project was launched in 2004 at a kick-off meeting of library management executives. Recommendations and comments were collected from the entire staff, reviewed and pursued selectively in work orders and position statements. A number of suggestions were realized, either immediately or following further review and preparation. The 2004 "Resource and Activity Consolidation" project will be continued as a long-term programme. In conjunction with the mission statement process and specifically with the newly instituted controlling system, library tasks and work processes will be continuously reviewed and optimized. All activities are devoted to the objective of developing the tools and processes required to ensure the economical, goal-oriented allocation of personnel and material resources.
A special task group established by the Director General prepared a set of guiding principles for Die Deutsche Bibliothek as a basis for realization of the controlling system. These guidelines were the point of departure for the development of a set of library policy guidelines for Die Deutsche Bibliothek initiated in a bottom-up process in January 2004. The goal is to establish a standard framework for orientation applicable to both day-to-day operations and planning and decision-making processes.
In a time of expanding global networks and persistent pressure to enhance efficiency, standardisation is now more important than ever before. Die Deutsche Bibliothek is therefore strongly committed to standardisation at the international level. The project devoted to "Changing for international formats and rules (MARC21, AACR2)" was completed in May. The findings discussed in the final project report confirm the advantages of implementing MARC21 and AACR2, and no compelling arguments against conversion were found. We now have an excellent opportunity to introduce standards currently in place all over the world in Germany as well. The Committee for Library Standards has recommended step-by-step conversion to international standards. The process was initiated with the resolution to implement MARC21 as a standard exchange format in December 2004.
IFLA-CDNL Alliance for Bibliographic Standards (ICABS)
One year after its founding in Berlin, the core activity of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), the "IFLA-CDNL Alliance for Bibliographic Standards (ICABS)" presented the full spectrum of its activities to a broad professional audience at the IFLA Conference in Buenos Aires.
With ICABS, the National Library of Australia, the Library of Congress, the British Library, the Koninklijke Bibliotheek of the Netherlands and Die Deutsche Bibliothek, in co-operation with the National Library of Portugal, the IFLA and the Conference of Directors of National Libraries (CDNL), are pursuing further efforts to co-ordinate and support key activities in the field of bibliographic and resource control as well as related format standards. During the first three years, Die Deutsche Bibliothek will serve as chair of the ICABS Advisory Board and will also maintain the administrative office.
Virtual International Authority File (VIAF)
Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the Library of Congress and OCLC share responsibility for the VIAF project. Using the Personennamendatei (Name Authority File, PND) and the Library of Congress Name Authority File (LCNAF) as examples, the objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of the idea developing and maintaining individual national authority files on a distributed basis while providing for shared use and access to title data contained in all national authority files. In the current phase of this project, the name authority records of the Library of Congress are being combined with those of the Personennamendatei. Wherever identical records are found, a VIAF record is set up. The first VIAF test database has already been established. Subsequence phases will be devoted to development of the VIAF server, implementation of an update process between the VIAF and the component authority files and the provision of access to library personnel and end users.
Co-ordination Agency DissOnline
Established at Die Deutschen Bibliothek in 2001, the Co-ordination Agency DissOnline supports university libraries in the process of implementing and/or modifying workflows for online dissertations. The Agency also provides assistance in the use of procedures for the transmission of online dissertations and related metadata. The work of the Co-ordination Agency DissOnline is supervised by the DissOnline Advisory Board. The expansion project for the Co-ordination Agency DissOnline funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) since March 1, 2003 was successfully completed at the end of 2004. The goals of the project, which include development of the basis for an infrastructure in Germany, promotion of co-operative activities, the drafting of framework agreements and guidelines regarding rights, formulation of recommendations for a practicable standard for DissOnline process, were achieved and implemented. At present 85 university libraries are participating in the submission process. Approximately 30,500 dissertations and 400 post-doctoral theses have been registered to date.
New concept for the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie
The new concept for the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie adopted in 2003 was implemented in 2004 and has achieved a high level of acceptance among users. Since January 2004, initial indexing is performed in the openly accessible database of Die Deutsche Bibliothek – http://dnb.ddb.de. National bibliographic services are also available for a fee to users who wish to receive a certain issue format or prefer to have data delivered at specified intervals. In addition to printed and CD-ROM/DVD versions and data services, the series of the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie and the New Release Service will also be offered as HTML files. Printable PDF versions of Series M and T, which are no longer published in printed form, are also available. Additional services will be offered in a second phase involving further development of the complete catalogue and the portal of Die Deutsche Bibliothek: filters for individual series of the bibliography, the option of generating SDI profiles for newly added titles or selecting specific types of media, further development of the procedure for retrieving structured data records online and links enabling users to order titles from the book trade.
Changes have also been made in the printed editions of the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie. Printed versions of Series M and T have been discontinued. Translations and Germanica, which were previously indexed in Series G, have now been incorporated into Series A. The New Release Service, which was available for direct order from Die Deutsche Bibliothek in print and in a PDF version in 2003, is now distributed by the Verlag MVB Marketing- und Verlagsservice des Buchhandels GmbH. The former Five Year Index has been converted to a Three Year Index.
Restructuring of the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie
A further change effected in bibliographic year 2004 was the restructuring of the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie involving conversion of the former 65 subject groups to 100 subject groups which conform for the most part to the two upper levels of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system. Thus the national bibliographies of the German-speaking countries are now structured on the basis of uniform standards, and Die Deutsche Bibliothek is in step with international developments, as the DDC is used for indexing in the national bibliographies of more than 60 countries.
Die Deutsche Bibliothek is presently developing a new concept for its Internet site. The site will have a new layout, and gateway functions are to be successively integrated into the new homepage in the course of the year 2005. Instead of confronting users with several different systems, the portal will offer a uniform user interface through which data from the individual systems can be used, processed and presented to users on the basis of a single set of functions. This functional portal concept will be realized in several steps. Development of the first portal services was initiated in 2004, to include initial specifications and prototypes. In addition, a content management system was introduced to support administration of the static WEB offerings.
In 2004, 14,179 users placed 520,876 orders on 295 days of operation at the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig. At the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main (including the German Music Archive Berlin (Deutsches Musikarchiv), 24,691 readers ordered 486,224 publications for use in the reading rooms on 295 days of operation.
The fee schedule was revised in the interest of greater simplicity and clarity. The new fee schedule was implemented in early 2004. With the exception of direct fees for specific services, which were raised slightly, fees remained unchanged for the most part.
Collections and outstanding new acquisitions
The collections of Die Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig grew by roughly 309,194 units to a total of 13,241,332 units in 2004. The Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main (including the German Music Archive Berlin and the GEMA Printed Music Collection) added 299,897 new units and now holds 8,961,969 publications in its collections. The number of online academic publications rose by 3,570 to 12,471 at the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig, and by 5,923 to 17,616 at the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main.
The German Exile Archive 1933 - 1945 (Deutsches Exilarchiv) acquired nine new legacies, partial legacies and collections in 2004, while expanding its existing collections through a number of valuable acquisitions, including, for example, collections from the estates of author Hermann Adler and physicist Gerhard Lewin. The legacy from the estate of literary scholar Ernst Loewy was supplemented through the purchase of numerous additional items. The following documents were also acquired: two signed portrait photographs of Erika and Klaus Mann, two letters from Katia Mann addressed to Hans Meisel, the former secretary of Thomas Mann. Several acquisitions by the Library and the Historical Archives of the Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels, which was entrusted to Die Deutsche Bibliothek on deposit in 2002, are particularly noteworthy: 277 antiquarian book catalogues from the 18th century and a collection of 20 letters to Stephanie and Karl Robert Langewiesche. The German Museum of Books and Writing (Deutsches Buch- und Schriftmuseum) enriched its collections through the acquisition of the legacy of Hans Peter Willberg, one of the most important German typographers of the latter half of the 20th century, and the purchase of the Künstleredition Aufruhr, Gilgamesch Epos, by Felix Martin Furtwängler. The German Music Archive Berlin added 1,700 items to its collection of historical sound recordings, including 67 Emil Berliner shellac records.
The tender for a new general contract for mass deacidification for all federal institutions was issued in 2003. The Bundesbeschaffungsamt was unable to award the contract until January 2005 due to a protest. Consequently, no materials were deacidified in 2004. General binding and repair work was performed on 40,430 objects. A total of 986 individual pages and 258 complete volumes were restored.
Electronic publications are becoming increasingly important not only within the academic community but also for the public at large. Libraries, archives and museums face new challenges with regard to the long-term preservation and availability of these digital objects. The Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (Federal Ministry of Education and Research, BMBF) has been funding the NESTOR (Authority Network Long-Term Archiving) project since May 2003. Projected to run for three years, the project is being carried out under the leadership of Die Deutsche Bibliothek with partners in the library, archive and museum communities. The goal is to ensure long-term archiving, preservation and availability of digital sources in Germany. The first objectives were achieved in 2004: The Internet site www.langzeitarchivierung.de was established and now serves as a communication and information platform offering a wide range of services to all interested institutions and individuals. One of a total of seven expert reports on issues relating to the long-term preservation of digital resources was presented to the public at the end of 2004. The study entitled "Digital Long-Term Preservation and the Law" illuminates the legal aspects of long-term preservation activities that must be considered by organisations concerned with preservation of the national memory. Two further expert reports were published in early 2005.
The goal of KOPAL (Co-operative Development of a Long-Term Digital Information Archive) is the practical testing and implementation of a long-term archiving system for digital publications developed and maintained on a co-operative basis. As partners in the consortium, Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen and IBM Deutschland are working toward realizing a co-operatively maintained, sustainable solution for the long-term preservation of digital resources. Responsibility for technical operations has been entrusted to the Gesellschaft für Wissenschaftliche Datenverarbeitung mbH in Göttingen. Technical implementation of the functionality to be realized in KOPAL is based upon preliminary work performed by the Koninklijke Bibliotheek of the Netherlands and IBM within the framework of a joint development project initiated in 2000. Further work required to realize a co-operatively operated system equipped with standardised interfaces within the framework of KOPAL will be performed by IBM. The software developed by the consortium partners will have the status of an open source programme. During the three-year term of the project, substantial quantities of heterogeneous data are to be fed into the system in order to demonstrate the feasibility and sustainability of the concept under productive operating conditions.
With the "KOPAL" and "NESTOR": projects, Die Deutsche Bibliothek is currently playing a leading role in two projects of strategic importance to the long-term preservation of the digital cultural heritage in Germany.
Persistent Identifiers (PI) are indispensable aids to the use and management of electronic documents. Within the framework of the CARMEN project (Work Package 4), Die Deutsche Bibliothek has introduced a "Uniform Resource Name" (URN) management system. The URN management system is to be expanded to cover additional types of documents and forms of publication within the context of EPICUR, the successor project funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Technical services are to be progressively improved, the spectrum of services expanded and transposed to a productive platform, thus providing for complementary application of various different PI services.
Cross-Concordance Standard-Thesaurus Economic (STW/SWD)
The project devoted to the development of a cross-concordance between the Schlagwortnormdatei (SWD) and the Standard-Thesaurus Wirtschaft (STW) funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) since March 2002 was successfully completed in September 2004. The two thesauri are now linked in such a way that for the first time integrated searches can be performed in heterogeneous databases using keywords in the fields of business and economics. Users of libraries and special information services can now search with familiar vocabulary. The cross-concordance translates search queries and increases the match rate for relevant documents. This project represents an important milestone in progressive efforts to achieve conformity between the two thesauri and will contribute to long-term co-operation among the partners involved: Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the Hamburgische Weltwirtschaftsarchiv (HWWA) and the Bibliothek des Instituts für Weltwirtschaft (ZBW) in Kiel, and the Universitäts- und Stadtbibliothek Köln in its capacity as a special collection library for Business Management and the Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes in Göttingen.
The goal of the DDC Deutsch project funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft is to translate the 22nd edition of the Dewey Decimal Classification system (DDC) into German. In addition to a printed edition issued in the form now commonly used throughout the world, a German-language Web version based on the original WebDewey format will be prepared. Substantial portions of the DDC translation were completed in 2004 and have since been submitted to a team of experts for review and elaboration of the German terminology. The project team formed by Die Deutsche Bibliothek was actively involved in both organizational and substantive aspects of the translation process and worked closely with the IT Department in furthering the development of MelvilClass and MelvilSearch, the two tools for the future DDC Web service.
Jewish periodicals during the NS regime in Germany
Following successful completion of the "Exilpresse digital" project, work began on a new digitisation project sponsored by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. In co-operation with the "Compact Memory Project" initiated by the German-Jewish Literary History Research Department of the Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen and the Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg Frankfurt am Main, the process of digitising selected Jewish newspapers and periodicals issued during the years of National Socialist rule from 1933 to 1943 was initiated in March 2004. Jewish periodicals from the period are a very important source of information of value to research on the life and tribulations of the Jewish community under National Socialist rule. Due to their condition, access to these materials is restricted and subject to significant difficulties. The goal of the project is to digitise and index the most important Jewish periodicals founded in Germany following the accession of the National Socialists to power in (or shortly before) 1933 and to make them available via the Internet.
Integration of the periodicals data of Die Deutsche Bibliothek into the Zeitschriftendatenbank (Periodicals Database, ZDB)
A project group formed by Die Deutsche Bibliothek began preparing for participation of Die Deutsche Bibliothek in the Zeitschriftendatenbank (ZDB) in mid-2002. Activities of crucial importance to future work - the development of definitions for monograph and periodical publications and preparations for the development of programme specifications for computerized scanning procedures that will support the integration of the periodicals data of Die Deutsche Bibliothek into the ZDB - were either completed or moved ahead. Online cataloguing in the ZDB is expected to begin in the spring of 2006.
The European Library
The European Library (TEL) project sponsored by the EU was brought to a successful completion in January 2004 and is now being converted into a fully functional service by the project partners under the auspices of the Conference of European National Librarians (CENL). In the first phase of this process, The European Library will offer integrated searches in the collections of nine European national libraries and incorporate the Gabriel Web information service. Once The European Library goes online, Gabriel will be discontinued as a separate service. The administrative office of The European Library has been established at the Koninklijke Bibliotheek in The Hague. Die Deutsche Bibliothek currently chairs the Management Board.
The European Commission has approved the application submitted by Die Deutsche Bibliothek for the "TEL-ME-MOR" extension project. "TEL-ME-MORE" is devoted to the expansion of co-operative activities and partnerships between the national libraries of the "old" and "new" EU Member States and the integration of their information services into The European Library.
Professional conferences and training
Die Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig was actively involved in the 2nd Leipzig Conference for Information and Libraries from March 23 - 26, 2004. A major conference focus was the role of information in business, education and politics. Some 2,500 participants from 29 countries accepted the invitation to come to Leipzig.
The Office for Library Standards organized a training seminar on "Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR)" at the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main on July 8 and 9 for members of the expert groups established by the Office for Library Standards. Internationally renowned FRBR specialists were invited to participate. In addition to lectures, discussions and group sessions devoted to such topics as alphabetical and subject cataloguing, continuously updated collection catalogues, authority files and MAB2 formats, ideas for specific activities to be pursued within the context of a German FRBR action plan were presented for discussion.
The EPICUR "Persistent Identifier" workshop was conducted at the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main in May 2004. Different Persistent Identifier services (URN/DOI) are currently in use. Existing and planned URN and DOI applications, work-flow support tools, standards and activities of the national libraries in the German-speaking region (Austria, Germany, Switzerland) were presented at the workshop.
Die Deutsche Bibliothek was represented with a stand at the book fairs in Leipzig and Frankfurt am Main and at the 2nd Leipzig Conference for Information and Education in 2004. Plans for the 4th extension for the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig were presented at the Leipzig Book Fair.
An interesting programme of events and exhibitions was presented at all three library locations during the past fiscal year. The highlights included a festive "unveiling" celebrated with friends and partners of Die Deutsche Bibliothek at the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig on March 25, 2004. The portrait of Klaus-Dieter Lehmann, Director General of Die Deutsche Bibliothek until 1999, was hung in the portrait gallery dedicated to former Directors General at a late-night gathering. Breaking with tradition, Professor Lehmann did not have his portrait done in oil but instead as a photograph by Helmut Newton. A second copy of the photograph was hung in the portrait gallery in Frankfurt.
The German Museum of Books and Writing (Deutsches Buch- und Schriftmuseum) enriched the "Nacht der Leipziger Museen" with an extensive programme of events.
The German Music Archive Berlin took part in the "Tag der Archive". The new permanent exhibition devoted to the history of sound recordings attracted considerable interest among the assembled guests.
The Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig presented an exhibition of children's and youth literature on the Holocaust and the National Socialist regime under the title "Kindern vom Faschismus erzählen" (Talking to Children about Fascism).
Both the public and the press exhibited great interest in the exhibition entitled "Albert Einstein - Mann des Jahrhunderts" (Albert Einstein - Man of the Century) presented at the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main from February 20 to April 24.
Digital publications are part of the cultural heritage and have to be preserved and kept available for future generations just as the printed publications. A considerable purpose of the revision of the legislation on the Deutsche Bibliothek is therefore, to extend the library's collection mandate on those editions that are published in a not corporate form (online publications). With this measure it is thought to secure and make available permanently also the by now widely spread innovative publication forms for literature, science and practice beside those editions that up to now were collected in a corporate form only. This also supports in cooperation with other institutions the aim, to preserve on a long term and make available permanently in digital form he knowledge of the world.
(only available in German)
Last update: 21.02.2012