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BERNSTEIN - The Memory of Paper


The aim of the Bernstein Project was to create an integrated European digital environment covering the history of paper and knowledge about paper. The project linked together all major European watermark databases, thereby providing a comprehensive and authoritative source of information about paper. The databases have benefited from specialised modules for interpretation of watermark instances and an extensive range of contextual data containing bibliographical and geographical (GIS) content. A further key aim of the project was to make the results, once obtained, available to the broadest possible group of users in the form of an easy-to-install software package (dissemination kit). In addition specialised image processing tools for detecting traces of chain and laid lines, for automatically detecting traces of watermarks in X-ray and backlight images of paper, and for removing noise from them, have been made available.

Project partners


European Commission

Project duration

2006 - 2009

Project homepage

Last update: 01.11.2017

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Schriftbanner mit Deutscher Nationalbibliothek Leipzig, Frankfurt am Main